pfSense Multi-WAN Configuration: Part Seven

pfSense multi-WAN

Changing the weight of a WAN gateway in pfSense 2.2.4.

There are some scenarios where you may want to only use failover. Some pfSense users have a secondary backup Internet connection with a low bandwidth limit, and only want to use that connection if their primary connection fails, and only while it is down. Failover pools allow you to do this. Another possible usage for failover pools is when you want to make sure a certain protocol or destination always uses only one WAN.

pfSense Multi-WANs: Configuring Weights

In pfSense 2.2, you can configure a weight/preference value to WANs. As described in an earlier article, you can set up a gateway group where the WAN interfaces have different priorities. In a gateway group, interfaces at the same tier have equal priority. Lower-numbered tiers have higher priority than higher-numbered tiers. For example, if we set WAN and WAN1 to Tier 1 and WAN2 to Tier 2, WAN and WAN1 will have equal priority. WAN2 will only come into use if both WAN and WAN1 are down. This is good, but what if WAN is our high-speed connection and WAN1 is a DSL connection, and therefore we want WAN to get the bulk of the traffic?

In this case, we can navigate to System -> Routing. The Gateway tab should be selected by default; if not, click on Gateway. Press the e button next to the entry for WAN. On the next page, press the Advanced button. The first entry in this section should be Weight. Using the dropdown box, change the weight to 2. The weight sets the ratio for use of a gateway. Once we change WAN’s weight to 2, there will be two Tier 1 gateways (WAN and WAN2) with weights of 2 and 1 respectively. Thus, out of 3 connections, 2 will use WAN, and 1 will use WAN1, so WAN should get two-thirds of the traffic. Similarly, we could change WAN’s weight to 3, so that WAN will get three-fourths of the traffic. When we are done changing the weight, we need to press Save at the bottom of the page and then press Apply Changes on the next page.

Note that this distribution is strictly balancing the number of connections. It does not take interface throughput into account. This means your bandwidth usage will not necessarily be distributed equally, though in most environments it works out to be roughly distributed as configured over time. This also means if an interface is loaded to its capacity with a single high throughput connection, additional connections will still be directed to that interface. Ideally you would want to distribute connections based on interface weights and the current throughput of the interface.

External Links:

Network Load Balancing on Wikipedia

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