BEAST Attack Mitigation in pfSense

BEAST attack

Enabling BEAST attack protection in pfSense 2.1.3.

On September 23, 2011 researchers Thai Duong and Juliano Rizzo demonstrated a proof of concept called Browser Exploit Against SSL/TLS (BEAST). A BEAST attack involves intercepting and decrypting HTTPS cookies. Whenever you log into an HTTPS page, after your authentication, you can see your autenticated page, and if you look carefully at the page’s URL, you can see the session ID. A session ID is a random number or combination of numbers and string that maintains the state of the page, it is assigned by the website server to the client browser. The session ID can be found in either the cookie or the URL of the web browser. Usually, session IDs will be encrypted to prevent hijacking of the session.

A successful BEAST attack entails first sending a malicious JavaScript to run on the victim’s machine. This can be achieved by several means: Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF), social engineering, a download, or a web page containing JavaScript. This malicious script runs on the victim’s machine and can capture the entire header info and the encrypted cookie that is assigned from the web server running Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.0 and can then send the information to the website.

Next, the attacker utilizes a vulnerability in SSL/TLS. In TLS 1.0, if there are two identical plaintext messages, then after encryption, the cipher text is the same. Thus, by comparing the encrypted session details and the unencrypted data sent by the script, the attacker can find the initialization vector. Once the attacker gets this information, it can decrypt future cookies sent from the web server.

Using this blueprint, Duong and Rizzo built the BEAST tool, which is capable of decrypting HTTPS cookies and hijacking browsing sessions in order to steal credentials. Major browser makers, except for Apple, addressed the issue on the client side by implementing a technique known as the 1/(1-n) split. The technique stops attackers from being able to predict the initialization vector blocks that are used to mask plaintext data before it is encrypted.

Enabling BEAST Attack Protection in pfSense

Fortunately, pfSense provides some measure of protection against BEAST attacks on your web configurator sessions. If you navigate to System -> Advanced, and click on the “Admin Access” tab, under “webConfigurator“, there is a “BEAST Attack Protection” check box. It is left unchecked by default because it does not work with Hifn cryptographic accelerators, and if it is used when such accelerators are being utilized, the web GUI will not work. If you are not using such cryptographic accelerators, however, you should be able to enable this option without having any issues.

External Links:

Not So Fast on BEAST Attack Mitigations at

BEAST vs. CRIME Attack at

© 2013 David Zientara. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy