pfSense Multi-WAN Configuration: Part Two

pfSense multi WAN

Configuring the DNS forwarder in pfSense 2.2.4.

In the first article, we covered some basic considerations with a multi-WAN setup. in this article, we will cover multi-WAN configuration.

First, the WAN interfaces need to be configured. You should set up the primary WAN the same way you would in a single WAN setup. Then for the OPT WAN interfaces, select either DHCP or static, depending on your Internet connection type. For static iP conncections, you will need to fill in the IP address and gateway.

Next, you need to configure pfSense with DNS servers from each WAN connection to ensure it is always able to resolve DNS. This is important, especially if your network uses pfSense’s DNS forwarder for DNS resolution. If you only use one ISP’s DNS servers, an outage of that WAN connection will result in a complete Internet outage regardless of your policy routing configuration.


pfSense uses its routing table to reach the configured DNS servers. This means without any static routes configured, it will use only the primary WAN interface to reach DNS servers. Static routes must be configured for any DNS server on an OPT WAN interface to reach that DNS server. Static routes must be configured for any DNS server on an OPT WAN interface, so pfSense uses the correct WAN interface to reach that DNS server.

This is required for two reasons. [1] Most ISPs prohibit recursive queries from hosts outside their network. Thus, you must use the correct WAN interface to access that ISP’s DNS server. [2] If you lose your primary WAN interface and do not have a static route defined for one of your other DNS servers, you will lose all DNS resultion ability in pfSense, since all DNS servers will be unreachable when the system’s default gateway is unreachable. If you are using pfSense as your DNS server, this will result in a complete failure of DNS for your network.

pfSense Multi-WAN: Static IPs vs. Dynamic IPs

A setup that has all static IPs on the WAN interfaces is easy to handle, as each WAN has a gateway IP that will not change. Dynamic IP WAN interfaces, on the other had, pose difficulties because their gateway is subject to change and static routes in pfSense must point to a static IP address. This usually is not a major problem, since only the IP address changes while the gateway remains the same. If your OPT WAN public IP changes subnets (and therefore gateways) frequently, use of the DNS forwarder in pfSense is not an acceptable solution for redundant DNS servcies; you will still have no reliable means of reaching a DNS server over anything other than the WAN interface.

pfSense multi-WAN

Configuring DNS servers with multiple WAN interfaces in pfSense 2.2.4.

With dynamic IP WANs, you have two alternatives. Because traffic from the inside networks is policy routed by your firewall rules, it is not subject the the limitation of requiring static routes. You can either use DNS servers on the Internet on all your internal systems, or use a DNS server or forwarder on your internal network. As long as DNS requests are initiated from inside your network and not on the firewall itself (as it is in the case of the DNS forwarder), static routes are not required and have no effect on traffic initiated inside your network when using policy routing.

A second option to consider is using one of your DNS server IPs from each Internet connection as the monitor IP for that connection. This will automatically add the appropriate static routes for each DNS server.

If you have a mix of statically and dynamically addressed WAN interfaces, then the primary WAN should be one of your dynamic IP WANs, as static routes are not required for DNS servers on the primary WAN interface.

The image on the right shows separate DNS servers with a multi-WAN setup in pfSense. In System -> General Setup, you can enter the DNS servers, and you can select the gateway used with the selected DNS server in the dropdown box on the right. As you can see, I have selected different WAN interfaces for each of the DNS servers, so the two WAN interfaces (WAN and WAN1) are not dependent on the same DNS server.


 

External Links:

Network Load Balancing on Wikipedia

NAT and Firewall Advanced Options in pfSense

In this article, I will cover some additional advanced settings available for firewall and NAT, which you can find by navigating to System -> Advanced and clicking on the “Firewall/NAT” tab.

Firewall Advanced Options

NAT

Advanced firewall and NAT options in pfSense.

Under “Firewall Advanced”, you will find the “Bypass firewall rules for traffic on the same interface” check box. This option applies only if you have defined one or more static routes (and presumably, at least one gateway; I covered configuring static routes in a previous article). If multiple subnets are connected to the same interface (e.g., if you divide the LAN into two or more separate subnets), using this option may be advantageous.

Next is the “Disable all auto-added VPN rules” check box. Checking this will disable any rules automatically added when a VPN was created. Next is the “Disable reply-to on WAN rules” check box. With Multi-WAN, you generally want to ensure traffic leaves the same interface it arrives on. Hence, reply-to is added automatically by default. When using bridging (or 1:1 NAT port forwarding with multiple interfaces), you must disable this behavior (by checking this box) if the WAN gateway IP is different from the gateway IP of the hosts behind the bridged interface. Finally, there is the “Disable Negate rule on policy routing rules” check box. With Multi-WAN, you generally want to ensure traffic reaches directly connected networks and VPN networks when using policy routing. You can disable this for special purposes (by checking this box), but it requires manually creating rules for this network.


NAT Advanced Options

The next section is “Network Address Translation”. The first option is the “Disable NAT Reflection for port forwards” check box. With NAT reflection, packets from internal networks that are addressed to the network’s public IP address will be treated as if they are coming from from the WAN interface. The router’s port forwarding rules will then determine where the packets go. Checking this box disables the automatic creation of additional NAT redirect rules for access to port forwards on your external IP addresses from within your internal networks.

Next is “Reflection Timeout“. This edit box allows you to set a NAT reflection timeout in seconds. The next option is the “NAT Reflection for 1:1 check box“. Checking this disables the automatic creation of additional NAT 1:1 mappings for access to 1:1 mappings of your external IP addresses from within your internal networks. The next check box is “Automatically create outbound NAT rules which assist inbound NAT rules that direct traffic back out to the same subnet it originated from.” This only applies to 1:1 NAT rules, and is helpful when NAT reflection is enabled.


The last option is “TFTP Proxy“. You can click on an interface listed (hold down SHIFT to select multiple interfaces) to enable TFTP proxy on the interface. Since TFTP is considered to be a security risk (no security or authentication is provided by the protocol specification), this option should only be enabled if absolutely necessary. Finally, click on “Save” to save the changes.

Other articles in this series:

webConfigurator options in pfSense

Admin Access Options in pfSense

Firewall Advanced Options in pfSense

External Links:

Network Address Translation at Wikipedia

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